# A New Year, A New Formula Sheet

I wrote earlier this year about my difficulties with equation reference sheets. Students fall into the habit of using them like a menu rather than a set of tools.

Yesterday I had the great experience of trying a revised approach. The idea is to rely more on memorization, but only so far as keeping close definitions that are crucial to understanding.

A student asked during a quiz for a formula for electric field. I said I wasn't going to provide one, so I pushed further to find out why this student needed it.

The student asked for the relationship between electric field, charge, and force. I provided this:

The student subsequently nodded and told me what went where. I then stepped away, keeping the post-it note with me.

This was an application of the definition of electric field, not Coulomb's law, and the student either knew this, or guessed. In either case, it was enough to enable the student to then solve the problem completely.

I don't know yet what this means, but it seems like a step in the right direction. I wonder if providing a reference sheet with random elements erased might be enough of a skeleton to encourage the students to know how to fill in the blanks, but wouldn't allow the sort of hunting that students often do in a problem solving situation.

It has been a nice start to the year, folks. Here's to a great school year for all of you.

# Formula Sheet - A Toolbox or Takeout Menu?

During the IB Exams, students get a set of equations and constants to use. Part of the motivation behind them is to reduce the amount of memorization required. There's no sense in students memorizing Planck's constant or the Law of Cosines in a context that emphasizes application of these ideas.

That said, I've heard variations on the following from different students just in the past three days:

• I thought I was right, then I looked at the formula sheet, and realized I was wrong. (She was right the first time.)
• I didn't study it because I knew it was on the formula sheet.
• I don't know what formula to use.

If you read my blog, you know that I don't test formula memorization for all sorts of reasons. You get it. I get it. It has a place, but that place isn't one I want to be spending my time.

You might also know that I've experimented with different versions of resources available to students during a test. I've done open note-card, open A4 sheet, open A5 sheet, open computer/closed network, open computer/open network, open notebook, and open people (i.e. a group test) formats.

I believe that the act of students creating their own formula sheets is more effective than handing one to them. The process of seeing how a formula is applied in different contexts and deciding what needs to be remembered is valuable on its own. Identifying that one problem is similar to another for reasons of physics shows understanding. I want to make opportunities for that to happen. Reducing the size of the resource requires students to prioritize. These are all high level skills.

The difficulty is that students see formulas directly as a pathway from problem to solution. Most problems worth solving don't fit with that level of simplicity. Formula sheets give you the factual information, and rely on the user to know how to connect that information to a problem. The student thinks that the answer is staring at them in the face, and they just have to pick the right one. As teachers, we want students to identify information they need, then look at the reference to get it.

This is part of the reason I like standards based grading, as it justifies assessing students through conversation. A student asks me for a specific piece of information. If it's how to calculate something, I'll tell them if the related learning standard is about applying a concept, not calculating a quantity. If their request directly asks for the answer to the question, I don't tell them. If they ask for a hint, I give them enough to get them moving, and adjust their proficiency level for the related standard according to the amount of help I give them.

In the long run, however, students need to know how to use the resources available to them. This is one of those big picture skills everyone talks about. Students need to know how to use Google to effectively find what they are looking for. They need to know that typing the text of a question into Yahoo Answers is not going to get them the answer they are looking for. I do know that if a student directly says "I can't remember a formula for [ ]", and I give them an equation sheet, they can usually find it. If they use the formula sheet as step one, they are not likely to complete the problem on their own. Having the sheet there in front of them makes it far too easy to start a problem that way. Would having students tally the number of times they looked at their sheet be enough of a feedback mechanism to keep this in check?

I don't know what the answer is right now.

How do you help students treat a formula sheet more like a tool box, and less like a restaurant take-out menu?